Sea ice on the Southern Ocean

final technical report, grant # NAGW-3362

Publisher: Polar Research Program, Office of Mission to Planet Earth, National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Publisher: National Technical Information Service, distributor in [Washington, DC?], [Springfield, Va

Written in English
Published: Downloads: 404
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  • Sea ice.,
  • Antarctic regions.,
  • Coastal currents.,
  • Surface properties.,
  • Antarctic Ocean.,
  • Ross ice shelf.,
  • Vorticity.,
  • Upwelling water.

Edition Notes

StatementStanley S. Jacobs.
Series[NASA contractor report] -- NASA/CR 207495., NASA contractor report -- NASA CR-207495.
ContributionsPolar Research Program (U.S.)
The Physical Object
Pagination1 v.
ID Numbers
Open LibraryOL15547946M

Because of this geography, Antarctic sea ice coverage is larger than the Arctic’s in winter, but smaller in the summer. Total Antarctic sea ice peaks in September—the end of Southern Hemisphere winter—historically rising to an extent of roughly million square kilometers (about Author: Michon Scott. Sea ice arises as seawater freezes. Because ice is less dense than water, it floats on the ocean's surface (as does fresh water ice, which has an even lower density). Sea ice covers about 7% of the Earth's surface and about 12% of the world's oceans. Much of the world's sea ice is enclosed within the polar ice packs in the Earth's polar regions: the Arctic ice pack of the Arctic Ocean and the.   Global climate models do not reproduce observed trends of the Southern polar ocean surface, but an increase in wind-transported sea ice that melts and inhibits mixing may account for . "The results show that Southern Ocean sea ice can respond quickly to the climate cooling, strongly amplifying glacial cycles," says Karl Stein. However, much more work needs to be done before the.

One such perspective that leaves a bloody trail through the book is that of brutal exploitation. The cold waters of the Southern Ocean feed a huge number of seals, penguins, whales, and fish – and humans have ruthlessly hunted these to near-extinction in roughly that order. Seals were hunted by the millions for fur starting in the s. The Southern Ocean is the world’s fourth-largest ocean. Surrounding the South Pole and Antarctica, it is the only ocean that goes all the way around the globe. Parts of the ocean freeze in winter, forming huge sheets of ice. Very high winds mean that the Southern Ocean is choppy, with huge waves. Image to right: Example of North Pole Sea Ice Decrease: This image shows that sea ice in the North Pole has been on the decline, with the most significant loss in the past three years. This occurrence runs counter to the paper’s new finding that sea ice in the Antarctic’s (or South Pole) Southern Ocean appears to be on the increase. sea temperatures vary from about 10 degrees Celsius to -2 degrees Celsius; cyclonic storms travel eastward around the continent and frequently are intense because of the temperature contrast between ice and open ocean; the ocean area from about latitude 40 south to the Antarctic Circle has the strongest average winds found anywhere on Earth; in winter the ocean freezes outward to 65 degrees.

Sea ice and the cooling Southern Ocean. The researchers used a series of simulations to show that sea-ice changes are the most probable cause for the cooling of the surface waters in the Southern.   Ice losses are rapidly spreading deep into the interior of the Antarctic, new analysis of satellite data shows. The warming of the Southern Ocean is resulting in glaciers sliding into the sea.   Sea‐Ice Induced Southern Ocean Subsurface Warming and Surface Cooling in a Warming Climate. F. Alexander Haumann, Nicolas Gruber, Matthias Münnich First published: 06 May Much of the Southern Ocean surface south of 55° S cooled and freshened between at least the early s and the early s.

Sea ice on the Southern Ocean Download PDF EPUB FB2

So begins Joy McCann’s Wild Sea, the remarkable story of the world’s remote Southern, or Antarctic, Ocean. Unlike the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, and Arctic Oceans with their long maritime histories, little is known about the Southern Ocean/5(3). Over the past 20 years the study of the frozen Arctic and Southern Oceans and sub-arctic seas has progressed at a remarkable pace.

This third edition of Sea Ice gives insight into the very latest understanding of the how sea ice is formed, how we measure (and model) its extent, the biology that lives within and associated with sea ice and the effect of climate change on its : Wiley-Interscience.

The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine held a workshop in Januaryto bring together scientists with different sets of expertise and perspectives to further explore potential mechanisms driving the evolution of recent Antarctic sea ice variability and to discuss ways to advance understanding of Antarctic sea ice and.

Sea ice around Antarctica plays a key role in determining the properties and circulation of the underlying Southern Ocean across a range of scales, whilst simultaneously numerous ocean processes. Southern Ocean Sea ice on the Southern Ocean book ice might otherwise be expected. Sea Ice Concentrations (Max/Min) NASA Earth Observatory This report and the accompanying inventory of historic sea-observations, adopts the convention found in the SAR Marine Users Manual in describing the geographic areas of the Southern Ocean surrounding the Antarctic continent.

These are. Over the spring‐summer period, the Antarctic sea ice cover is a net sink of atmospheric CO 2 of Pg C, about 58% of the estimated annual uptake from the Southern Ocean.

Sea ice then contributes significantly to the sink of CO 2 of the Southern Ocean. role for Antarctic sea ice in the upper branch and suggest thatresidualoverturningandwind-drivensea-icetransportare tightly coupled. The Southern Ocean State Estimate (SOSE) is an ice/ocean data assimilation produced for the time period January through December (See Methods and Supplementary Information for SOSE details and validation.).

Recently, the Southern Ocean freshwater cycle, of which sea-ice formation and melting is an important component, has been suggested to play an Cited by: The warming of the Southern Ocean has important climate consequences due to its central influence on the Southern Hemisphere ice reservoir.

Near-surface Southern Ocean heat content is key in limiting the seasonal development of sea ice (Martinson, ), and warming can therefore feed back into the global climate by limiting Earth’s albedo.

A variety of marine animals exist and rely, directly or indirectly, on the phytoplankton in the Southern Ocean. Antarctic sea life includes penguins, blue whales, orcas, colossal squids and fur seals. The remoteness of the Antarctic sea ice field and the fact that there is still no reliable way to measure its thickness from satellites renders it one of the most difficult geophysical parameters to measure.

In this study, variations in sea ice thickness were examined by means of upward looking sonar (ULS) measurements in the Weddell Sea. ULS instruments measure the subsurface portion (draft. One year of daily sea ice thickness (gray shading) simulated by CESM, 1/4 degree atmosphere resolution, 1/10 degree ocean resolution using present-day bounda.

PLANNING COMMITTEE ON ANTARCTIC SEA ICE VARIABILITY IN THE SOUTHERN CLIMATE-OCEAN SYSTEM. JULIENNE STROEVE (Chair), University of Colorado Boulder. DAVID HOLLAND, New York University, New York MARIKA HOLLAND, National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, Colorado TED MAKSYM, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

The map shows the location of sediment core PS in the sea-ice free Antarctic Zone (AZ) of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean and core PS Cited by:   Since one of the goals of this paper is to determine if CO 2-driven changes in the sea ice–ocean freshwater exchange can sufficiently alter convection and fit into Gregory’s () hypothesis of Southern Ocean heat uptake, we focus first on how the change in the sea ice Cited by: The depths of the Weddell Basin exceed m and the narrow connection leading to the Argentine Basin is at about m.

The Southern Ocean is bordered with relatively deep shelves, typically m deep. Especially wide shelves are found in the Ross Sea and the Weddell by:   Sea ice, sunlight, and food—they all come and go with the seasons in the Southern Ocean. Paul Holland, a climate modeler with the British Antarctic Survey, has spent the last ten years studying Antarctica’s sea ice and the Southern Ocean.

Lately, he has been scrutinizing the seasons of Antarctica and how fast the ice comes and goes. In the Southern Ocean, warm water tends to sink downward in the ocean’s water column, making sea ice melt from warm water less likely. Icebergs are not sea ice: they’re floating fragments of Author: Michon Scott.

A chart detailing the changes in the Southern Ocean's temperature and salinity between and Haumann et al, AGU Adv The reason sea ice is a problem is that when it melts, it releases.

Recently developed constraints on the sea‐ice induced freshwater fluxes suggest that these fluxes dominate the Southern Ocean surface freshwater flux balance in the seasonal ice zone and are a major driver of the observed open‐ocean surface freshening (Haumann et al., ).

Therefore, changing sea‐ice−ocean freshwater fluxes might be a. Thus, the thermodynamic coupling between winter sea ice growth and ocean ventilation has significant regional variability.

This regionality will influence the response of the Southern Ocean ice–ocean system to future changes in ocean stratification and surface by: 3. Sea ice in the Southern Ocean is a major controlling factor on phytoplankton productivity, but the relationship is modified by regional differences in atmospheric and oceanographic conditions.

Understanding long-term changes in large-scale sea ice drift in the Southern Ocean is of considerable interest given its contribution to ice extent, to ice production in open waters, with associated dense water formation and heat flux to the atmosphere, and thus to the climate system.

Antarctic sea ice has growing over the last few decades but it certainly is not due to cooling - the Southern Ocean has shown warming over same period.

Increasing southern sea ice is due to a combination of complex phenomena including cyclonic winds around Antarctica and changes in ocean circulation. An analysis of how the balance between sea ice and pelagic production might change under a warming scenario indicates that when current levels of primary production and changes in the areas of sea ice habitats are taken into account, the expected 25% loss of sea ice over the next century would increase primary production in the Southern Ocean Cited by: “The Southern Ocean is a wild and elusive place, an ocean like no other.

With its waters lying between the Antarctic continent and the southern coastlines of Australia, New Zealand, South America, and South Africa, it is the most remote and inaccessible part of the planetary ocean, the only part that flows around Earth unimpeded by any landmass. It is notorious amongst sailors for its.

The Arctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Concentrations data set is popular with NSIDC users because it is a long time series that begins inincludes both poles, presents data in an easy to use gridded format, and is the only sea ice time series available from NSIDC that begins that early.

The Southern Ocean circulation and sea-ice distribution is briefly described. The formation of extremely cold bottom water in the Weddell Sea and its relation to the floating Ronne-Filchner Ice Shelves is Cited by:   Deep convection in polar oceans plays a critical role in the variability of global climate.

In this study, we investigate potential impacts of atmosphere–sea ice–ocean interaction on deep convection in the Southern Ocean (SO) of a climate system model (CSM) by changing sea ice–ocean stress. Sea ice–ocean stress plays a vital role in the horizontal momentum exchange between sea ice and.

Antarctic and Southern Ocean Sea Ice Sea Ice Region Region: Casey Area Sea-Ice Davis Prydz Bay Area Sea-Ice Dumont D'Urville - Mertz Glacier Area Sea-Ice Mawson Area Sea-Ice Shackleton Ice-Shelf Area Sea-Ice Terra Nova Bay Area Sea-Ice West Ice-Shelf Area Sea-Ice Princess Ragnhild Coast Area Sea-Ice Enderby Land Area Sea-Ice Cape Adare Area Sea.

Atmospheric carbon was sequestered in the ocean during glacial periods, but the processes responsible are not understood. Southern Ocean (SO) sea ice has been proposed as a link between several processes of carbon sequestration.

This study analyzes the effect of SO sea ice on ocean ventilation in a ,y climate model simulation. The results show that SO sea ice can .the Southern Ocean is 4, to 5,m deep over most of its extent with only limited areas of shallow water; the Antarctic continental shelf is generally narrow and unusually deep, its edge lying at depths of to m (the global mean is m); the Antarctic icepack grows from an average minimum of million sq km in March to about million sq km in September, better than a sixfold.

Going against the trend: Cooling in the Southern Ocean "We assume the strong winds pushing the sea ice in the Southern Ocean northward are potentially a side-effect of climate change," Gruber.